Native woodlands are planted in a proportion of species according to what occurs in nature. As the woodland matures and attempts to regenerate, the local site conditions will mould the species mix so it important to start with a wide range. There are broadly two widely-accepted ways of classifying native woodland types:
Biodiversity Action Plan (Scotland)
Acidic Dry Woodland
These tend to be upland sites, but also include acidic lowland heaths. Birch, pine and oak will predominate.
Neutral Dry Woodland
With a higher pH, these woodlands are often upland, but pine is not supported and hazel and rowan are normally present.
Base-Rich Dry Woodland
Particularly prevalent over calciferous soils, these woodlands are dominated by Ash and Hazel with Oak, Birch, Hawthorn, Elder and Wych Elm in lower densities.
Acidic Wet Woodland
Generally Downy Birch Woodlands, Scots Pine can also be present
Neutral to Base-Rich Wet Woodland
Soil types tend to be flushed mineral soils and peats and Alder or Willows dominate
Native Woodlands have traditionally be classified by the vegetation present under the NVC. The types are:
W1 Salix cinerea – Galium palustre woodland
W2 Salix cinerea – Betula pubescens – Phragmites
W3 Salix pentandra – Carex rostrata woodland
W4 Betula pubescens – Molinia caerulea woodland
W5 Alnus glutinosa – Carex paniculata woodland
W6 Alnus glutinosa – Urtica dioica woodland
W7 Alnus glutinosa – Fraxinus excelsior – Lysimachia
W8 Fraxinus excelsior – Acer campestre – Mercurialis
W9 Fraxinus excelsior – Sorbus aucuparia – Mercurialis
W10 Quercus robur – Pteridium aquilinum – Rubus
W11 Quercus petraea – Betula pubescens – Oxalis
W12 Fagus sylvatica – Mercurialis perennis woodland
W13 Taxus baccata woodland
W14 Fagus sylvatica – Rubus fruticosus woodland
W15 Fagus sylvatica – Deschampsia flexuosa woodland
W16 Quercus spp. – Betula spp. – Deschampsia
W17 Quercus petraea – Betula pubescens – Dicranum
W18 Pinus sylvestris – Hylocomium splendens woodland
Each type of woodland exists under different conditions and prescribes what range of species should be considered for new planting.